Shield is the most ancient active defense´s weapon to get protection from enemy´s weapons or to launch an attack. It is known, at least, since the Sumerian Age (IIIrd millenium BC) ant it will be used in Western world until the XVIIth century, when individual firearms became more usual.
The main fonctions of shields it was the protection of warrior´s front body. Among the huge range of functional shields we can find severals from no matter what age, such as, medieval, viking or roman.
Targe is a lenticular shield tight to the arm by straps and a handle, more or less it has 50-60 cm of diameter. It was mainly used by soldiers during their training or for duels. Snce the Ancient Age (roman army and its contemporaries) until Modern Age (XVIIth century), it was used above all to fight with a sword.
They were made of wood, besides the covered part with hangings or with steel. During the XVIIth century bulletproof targes were made (but also canons targes ) with guns embeded.
A buckler is a little shield, made of iron, steel or more commonly of wood. It was covered by elk´s skin and its edge was plastered by iron. It has in the middle a bowl of the same material, usually empty for allowing its holder, handle it.
In general, it was used during the Middle Age and the Renaissance , consisting in a poor protection against projectiles, like arrows, but incredibly useful to divert a sword or spear hit.
Buckler was more used that people commonly think. It was a simple but efficient weapon. The shield´s main use was to protect the hand from the opponent´s sword, its lightness and curved centre were ideal for achieving this goal; it was a typical technique to use it for hitting the enemy with its flat side or with the edge.